California Strangulation Laws

CA SB 40 Chapter 331

Existing law requires every law enforcement agency to develop, adopt, and implement written policies and standards for officers’ responses to domestic violence calls. Existing law requires these policies to include specific standards for furnishing written notice to victims at the scene, including, among other things, information about the victim’s rights.

This bill would additionally require that information to include a statement informing the victim that strangulation may cause internal injuries and encouraging the victim to seek medical attention.

Existing law requires each law enforcement agency to develop a system for recording all domestic violence-related calls for assistance, including whether weapons are involved, to compile the total number of domestic violence calls received and the numbers of those cases involving weapons, and to report that information annually to the Governor, the Legislature, and the public, as specified.

This bill would, in addition to the information about whether weapons are involved, require this information to include whether the incident involved strangulation or suffocation.

Existing law requires each law enforcement agency to develop an incident report form that includes a domestic violence identification code, and requires that incident report form to include specified information.

This bill would require that incident report form to additionally include whether there were indications that the incident involved strangulation or suffocation, as specified.

CA. PENAL CODE § 273.5. WILLFUL INFLICTION OF CORPORAL INJURY; VIOLATION; PUNISHMENT 

(a) Any person who willfully inflicts corporal injury resulting in a traumatic condition upon a victim described in subdivision (b) is guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years, or in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of up to six thousand dollars ($6,000) or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(b) Subdivision (a) shall apply if the victim is or was one or more of the following:

(1) The offender’s spouse or former spouse.

(2) The offender’s cohabitant or former cohabitant.

(3) The offender’s fiancé or fiancée, or someone with whom the offender has, or previously had, an engagement or dating relationship, as defined in paragraph (10) of subdivision (f) of Section 243.

(4) The mother or father of the offender’s child.

(c) Holding oneself out to be the husband or wife of the person with whom one is cohabiting is not necessary to constitute cohabitation as the term is used in this section.

(d) As used in this section, “traumatic condition” means a condition of the body, such as a wound, or external or internal injury, including, but not limited to, injury as a result of strangulation or suffocation, whether of a minor or serious nature, caused by a physical force. For purposes of this section, “strangulation” and “suffocation” include impeding the normal breathing or circulation of the blood of a person by applying pressure on the throat or neck.

CA. PENAL CODE § 13730. RECORDATION SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CALLS; ANNUAL REPORT; INCIDENT REPORT FORM

(a) Each law enforcement agency shall develop a system, by January 1, 1986, for recording all domestic violence-related calls for assistance made to the department, including whether weapons are involved, or whether the incident involved strangulation or suffocation. All domestic violence-related calls for assistance shall be supported with a written incident report, as described in subdivision (c), identifying the domestic violence incident. Monthly, the total number of domestic violence calls received and the numbers of those cases involving weapons or strangulation or suffocation shall be compiled by each law enforcement agency and submitted to the Attorney General.

(b) The Attorney General shall report annually to the Governor, the Legislature, and the public the total number of domestic violence-related calls received by California law enforcement agencies, the number of cases involving weapons, the number of cases involving strangulation or suffocation, and a breakdown of calls received by agency, city, and county.

(c) Each law enforcement agency shall develop an incident report form that includes a domestic violence identification code by January 1, 1986. In all incidents of domestic violence, a report shall be written and shall be identified on the face of the report as a domestic violence incident. The report shall include at least all of the following:

(1) A notation of whether the officer or officers who responded to the domestic violence call observed any signs that the alleged abuser was under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance.

(2) A notation of whether the officer or officers who responded to the domestic violence call determined if any law enforcement agency had previously responded to a domestic violence call at the same address involving the same alleged abuser or victim.

(3) A notation of whether the officer or officers who responded to the domestic violence call found it necessary, for the protection of the peace officer or other persons present, to inquire of the victim, the alleged abuser, or both, whether a firearm or other deadly weapon was present at the location, and, if there is an inquiry, whether that inquiry disclosed the presence of a firearm or other deadly weapon. Any firearm or other deadly weapon discovered by an officer at the scene of a domestic violence incident shall be subject to confiscation pursuant to Division 4 (commencing with Section 18250) of Title 2 of Part 6.

(4) A notation of whether there were indications that the incident involved strangulation or suffocation. This includes whether any witness or victim reported any incident of strangulation or suffocation, whether any victim reported symptoms of strangulation or suffocation, or whether the officer observed any signs of strangulation or suffocation.

CA. AB-3189 CONSENT BY MINORS TO TREATMENT FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE 

(1) Existing law authorizes a minor who is 12 years of age or older and is alleged to have been raped, or a minor who is alleged to have been sexually assaulted, to consent to medical care related to the diagnosis and treatment of the condition and the collection of medical evidence with regard to the alleged rape or sexual assault.
This bill would authorize a minor who is 12 years of age or older and who states he or she is injured as a result of intimate partner violence, as defined, to consent to medical care related to the diagnosis or treatment of the injury and the collection of medical evidence with regard to the alleged intimate partner violence. The bill would specify that this provision would not apply to a case in which a minor is an alleged victim of rape or is alleged to have been sexually assaulted, in which case the above-described provisions would apply.
(2) Existing law requires a health practitioner who works in a certain type of health facility and provides medical services for a patient he or she knows or reasonably suspects is suffering from an injury caused by a firearm or assaultive or abusive conduct to make a report to a local law enforcement agency about the patient and the extent of the injuries.
This bill would require a health practitioner that believes a report is required pursuant to these provisions, when providing treatment to an above-described minor injured as a result of alleged intimate partner violence, to inform the minor that the report will be made and attempt to contact the minor’s parent or guardian and inform him or her of the report, except as specified.

FAMILY CODE CHAPTER 2 ARTICLE 1 SECTION 6320.  

(a) The court may issue an ex parte order enjoining a party from molesting, attacking, striking, stalking, threatening, sexually assaulting, battering, credibly impersonating as described in Section 528.5 of the Penal Code, falsely personating as described in Section 529 of the Penal Code, harassing, telephoning, including, but not limited to, making annoying telephone calls as described in Section 653m of the Penal Code, destroying personal property, contacting, either directly or indirectly, by mail or otherwise, coming within a specified distance of, or disturbing the peace of the other party, and, in the discretion of the court, on a showing of good cause, of other named family or household members.

(b) On a showing of good cause, the court may include in a protective order a grant to the petitioner of the exclusive care, possession, or control of any animal owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by either the petitioner or the respondent or a minor child residing in the residence or household of either the petitioner or the respondent. The court may order the respondent to stay away from the animal and forbid the respondent from taking, transferring, encumbering, concealing, molesting, attacking, striking, threatening, harming, or otherwise disposing of the animal.

(c) As used in this subdivision (a), “disturbing the peace of the other party” refers to conduct that, based on the totality of the circumstances, destroys the mental or emotional calm of the other party. This conduct may be committed directly or indirectly, including through the use of a third party, and by any method or through any means including, but not limited to, telephone, online accounts, text messages, internet-connected devices, or other electronic technologies. This conduct includes, but is not limited to, coercive control, which is a pattern of behavior that in purpose or effect unreasonably interferes with a person’s free will and personal liberty. Examples of coercive control include, but are not limited to, unreasonably engaging in any of the following:

(1) Isolating the other party from friends, relatives, or other sources of support.

(2) Depriving the other party of basic necessities.

(3) Controlling, regulating, or monitoring the other party’s movements, communications, daily behavior, finances, economic resources, or access to services.

(4) Compelling the other party by force, threat of force, or intimidation, including threats based on actual or suspected immigration status, to engage in conduct from which the other party has a right to abstain or to abstain from conduct in which the other party has a right to engage.

(d) This section does not limit any remedies available under this act or any other provision of law.

Cal. Gov. Code § 7286.5

(a) A law enforcement agency shall not authorize the use of a carotid restraint or choke hold by any peace officer employed by that agency.
(b) As used in this section, the following terms are defined as follows:

(1) “Carotid restraint” means a vascular neck restraint or any similar restraint, hold, or other defensive tactic in which pressure is applied to the sides of a person’s neck that involves a substantial risk of restricting blood flow and may render the person unconscious in order to subdue or control the person.
(2) “Choke hold” means any defensive tactic or force option in which direct pressure is applied to a person’s trachea or windpipe.
(3) “Law enforcement agency” means any agency, department, or other entity of the state or any political subdivision thereof, that employs any peace officer described in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code.

Ca. Gov. Code § 7286.5